Some forms of human trafficking are rising in Australia with forced labour and sexual servitude reports at their highest in five years.
Australian Federal Police recorded 340 complaints of human trafficking offences in the 2022-2023 financial year compared to 294 in the previous year.
AFP commander Helen Schneider said police believe human trafficking is under-reported despite rising figures.
"Many victim-survivors feel ashamed or confused about what's happened to them and those feelings are leveraged by offenders to maintain their silence," Commander Schneider said.
AFP tracked 90 reports of forced marriage, 90 of trafficking, 73 of sexual exploitation, 43 of forced labour and 18 reports of debt bondage among hundreds of cases in the 2022-2023 financial year.
A number of slavery and domestic servitude cases were also investigated, AFP said.
Commander Schneider said the increase of reported human trafficking cases was an encouraging sign for proactive policing.
"Disrupting human trafficking represents an excellent outcome," she said.
"Instead of prosecuting a forced marriage, if we can prevent it from occurring in the first place then it's a positive for the investigators and the would-be victim.
"Australia is not immune to human trafficking but we will do everything we can to protect victim-survivors and put offenders before the courts."
Common indicators of human trafficking include the victim appearing to be under the control of someone else and reluctant to interact with others or appearing frightened, withdrawn or showing signs of physical or mental abuse.
Victims were often separated from their earnings, personal identification documents or passports, AFP said.
HELP IS AVAILABLE:
If you suspect that you or another person is experiencing, or at risk of, modern slavery or human trafficking, call 131 AFP (237) or use the AFP's confidential online form.
If you have immediate concerns for your safety, the safety of another person, or there is an emergency, dial Triple Zero (000).
For information and confidential advice please contact Australian Red Cross. Call (03) 9345 1800 or visit redcross.org.au/stpp.